The Democratic Republic of Congo
Pamphile Mabiala Mantuba-Ngoma

The Democratic Republic of Congo – Democracy at Gunpoint
Pamphile Mabiala Mantuba-Ngoma
Theodor Hanf  and Beatrice Schlee

“The title of this book prepares the reader for an account of nearly 16 years of political change in the Democratic Republic of Congo. From 1990 to the 2006 elections the process of democratization went hand in hand with bullets. Political violence could jeopardize the process at any time. To hold onto power, violence was necessary. To snatch a patch of liberty, violence was indispensable”…….


A country doomed to pillage?  The Congolese crisis in historical context
The Congo Free State:  A private mining company runs as an absolute monarchy
The Congo, a model paternalistic colony
The “Congolese swarms”
Afro-militarism: one country pillaging another
The open militarization of the intra-African relations
From the erosion of alliances to the outline of a peace settlement
Memory of terror in the occupied regions
The pillage of Congo’s resources
Geography, geo-economics and geopolitics:  Reflections on the Congo and the concept of the “Great Lakes”

The long political transition in the DRC (1990-2006)   Positive Aspects and Vicissitudes
The nature of the process of transition
The actors of the process of transition
The Sovereign National Conference as a founding act of democracy
The war “for democracy” and the rupture of the democratic process (1996-2002)
The inter-Congolese dialogue and the new political order
The challenges of the transition’s institutions
The elections and the end of the transition

The risks of interethnic coexistence in the East of the Democratic Republic of Congo
The issues
-The nationality question
-The question of the land
Cattle and the big farms
The actors
Positioning strategies
The Congolese state and the hazards of interethnic coexistence
What should be done?

The question of Congolese nationality
Territorial history of Congo
The evolution of legislation on nationality (1892-2004)

Political negotiations and the peace process in the DRC
The peace summits for the DRC
The inter-Congolese political negotiations: from Gaborone to Pretoria

The demographic reality in the post-conflict Congo
What is the population of the country by territory?
Administrative map of the DRC
The Urban network of the DRC

The educational system in the Democratic Republic of Congo – Challenges and stakes
The colonial educational legacy in the DRC
The golden age of education in Congo
The decline of the educational system
Solutions to ameliorate the educational system

The economy of the Democratic Republic of Congo in the post-conflict phase
Reorientation of the tea market
Hombo-Champuja oil palm Plantation
Planning the future

The Constitution of the Transition – positive points and pitfalls
The positive points of the Constitution of the Transition
The pitfalls of the constitution

The Congolese judicial system – inventory and future perspectives

The military dimension of the Constitution of the Transition

Civil society’s contribution to building democracy in the DRC

Congo – a hopeless case?

Perceptions of democracy and politics in DRC

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